Zero Carb Interview: James Cordes


James with his fiancée Lauren

1. How long have you been eating a Zero Carb (No Plant Foods) diet?

Since April 10, 2009. Coming up on 8 years.

2. What motivated you to try this way of eating? Weight? Health?

When I first started restricting carbs my motivation was weight loss. Going zero carb was more about mastering cravings, though. I knew low carb worked great for losing weight, but my cravings still got the best of me from time to time. When I heard about ZC in April 2009 and how some people completely mastered their cravings, I gave it a shot. After 30 days my cravings were completely gone and I knew I was going to be ZC for life.

3. How long did it take you to adapt to a Zero Carb diet, both physically and psychologically?

About 30 days, I think. It’s been a long time since I started. I remember gaining weight at first. I think I started ZC at 222 and jumped up to 228 before I started losing again. In any case, I was told there might be some weight gain at the start and it didn’t worry me. My energy was great. Psychologically, I was loving how my cravings were melting away. I’ve always liked the feeling of having control over my urges and impulses. ZC made me feel like I was a complete master of my domain when it came to food.


4. What books or people were most influential in guiding you to this way of eating?

I delivered newspapers back when I was in college so that meant being up by 4 AM to get on the road. Anyway, I kept some pretty weird hours back in those days and PBS was the only TV station that carried good programming overnight. I ended up getting pulled in by an episode of Frontline called “Diet Wars” that featured Gary Taubes. I didn’t know anything about dietary science or carb restriction, but Gary came off so intelligently in that episode. He just struck me as a guy who knew what he was talking about.

Fast forward 3-4 years: I’ve graduated college, I’ve put on 40 lbs, I’m unhappy about my weight. I know I need to do something about it, but I don’t know what. Then I remember that smart guy from Frontline. I do a little bit of googling and find out Gary wrote a book: Good Calories, Bad Calories. Perfect.

This is probably early 2009 or so. Anyway, I start reading GCBC and researching low carb info online. My weight drops from 265 to 225 or so. I still fall off the wagon a couple times a month, which is discouraging, but at least I know low carb works and that it is healthy. I’m no longer fearful of saturated fat or high cholesterol or any of the high-fat fear mongering that was still somewhat prevalent, even in 2009. The paradigm was starting to shift, but we weren’t close to a tipping point just yet.

I’m droning on now, but to get back to the question at hand: Gary Taubes was my first big influence and he led me to Charles Washington and the ZIOH forum, which was my second big influence.

I found ZIOH when I was googling some references in the back of Good Calories, Bad Calories. I read around the forum a bit and saw people who had mastered their cravings on ZC (Charles among them). I gave it a shot and the rest is history.


5. Do you eat only meat, or do you include eggs, cheese, and cream in your diet?

The first 3 years or so I only ate unseasoned beef and water. At the time, the hardcore people on ZIOH were beef and water only and I wanted to feel hardcore too. Besides, it truly did work. My cravings were 100% gone. There were other people on ZIOH eating a more diverse diet (other meat, dairy, cured meats, etc). Some of them weren’t having cravings, but others were struggling. I figured I’d play it safe and just eat beef and drink water.

I opened up a bit after I met my fiancee. She went low carb when we got serious and is ZC most days, but she needs a bit more variety to be content. Now my diet includes chicken, pork, some occasional cured meats, some occasional cheeses or heavy whipping cream.

My weight did go up a bit when I added those items back to my diet. I was always around 185-195 lbs on just beef and water. Now I range from 200 to 210. I’m 6’6″ tall, by the way, so the extra weight isn’t all that visible and my clothes fit just the same as before.

I’ve made this answer needlessly long again, but I think I will go back to beef and water mostly in the future, when I can get my fiancee on board. Within the confines of ZC, I do experience cravings for dairy and cured meats when I’m eating the more diverse menu. I don’t crave carbs at all, but I do crave those “ZC snack foods” from time to time. That’s not the case when I’m just beef and water.

img_14286. What percentage of your diet is beef versus other types of meats?

Right now I’d say I’m 65% beef and 35% other meats and dairy. I’d like to get that back to about 90% beef and 10% other.

7. When you eat beef, do you cook it rare, medium, or well done?

Usually medium rare, but sometimes I get the urge for something a little more cooked and I’ll go up to medium.

8. Do you add extra fat to your meat? (i.e. butter, lard, tallow)

Only if I’m eating a very lean meat like chicken breasts or my home made jerky (which is nothing more than dehydrated round roast).


9. Do you limit your meat consumption or do you eat until satisfied?

I don’t limit myself at all. I eat until I’m full or until the hunger is gone. I usually eat once or twice a day. I don’t track portions or count calories or do anything like that.

10. Do you eat liver or other organ meats? If so, how often?

I don’t. It never sounded tasty to me so I never looked in to it. I know some people do it for extra nutrients or something like that, but I’ve just never looked into it because it didn’t seem that appealing to eat. I’ve also never felt like I was deficient in anything. My energy has always been pretty good. Who knows though, maybe I’m missing out on some extra boost and I just don’t know it!

11. Do you consume bone broth? If so, how often?

I’ve never tried it. Maybe this is another extra boost I’m missing out on! I’ve just never looked into it.

12. How many meals do you eat per day on average?

Usually 1 or 2. On very rare occasion, maybe 3.

13. How much meat do you eat per day on average?

I probably average 2 lbs of meat a day. Just depends on the day. Some days I’m sure I break 3 lbs. Some days I probably only eat a pound. Generally I’m eating about 2 lbs though.


Stocking up on ground beef!

14. Do you eat grass-fed/pasture-raised meat, or regular commercially produced meat?

Mostly commercially produced meat. Your normal grocery store fare. I do have a big bucket of grass-fed tallow I use for my pemmican. I might have a few grass fed steaks/burgers a year if they are marked down for quick sale.

15. Do you drink any beverages besides water? (i.e. coffee, tea)

Mostly just flat water. I’ll have plain canned selzer water once in a while if I want some bubbles.

16. Do you use salt?

Yes. Pink Himalayan salt or the Celtic Sea salt or Real Salt puts out a nice salt with a bunch of other minerals and stuff in it. I’m usually using one of those salts. Meat + Salt = Tasty

17. Do you use spices?

I’ll put pepper on my steaks sometimes. My fiancee likes garlic powder and montreal steak seasoning on her steaks so I’ll have some of that once in a while if she doesn’t finish her steak.

18. Do you take any supplements?



19. How much money do you spend on food each month?

About $400 for two people. We could eat much cheaper, but we like to eat a lot of steaks. If we switched to cheap cuts of pork, ground beef, chicken thighs and eggs I’m sure we could eat heartily for less than $200 per month.

20. Do you have any tips for making this diet more affordable?

Eggs. Whole Chickens, chicken thighs, chicken legs, chicken wings. Cheap cuts of pork. Ground beef. Get a deep freezer. Look for sales. Look for items that have been reduced for quick sale. Stock up, pack your freezer.

21. Do you exercise regularly? If so, how often and how vigorously?

I don’t really exercise. I play disc golf, which means a lot of walking during the spring/summer/fall months. That’s about it.


22. What benefits have you experienced since beginning a Zero Carb diet? (i.e. recovery from illness, overall health, body composition, exercise performance, hormonal, mental or psychological, etc.)

Lost cravings for all carby foods. Lost excess body fat. My energy is much better. In the beginning of ZC, my focus was much better. It’s not as good now, but I blame my social media addiction for that, haha! I get sick much less often. When I do get sick, it is very mild and I recover much quicker.

23. What do you enjoy most about eating a Zero Carb diet?

The control and flexibility it gives me.

I’m no longer a slave to my hunger or my cravings. If I have to go a full day without eating, it’s really not a big deal. My body will just eat some of its fat reserves.

My moods are even. I don’t get cranky when I haven’t eaten. Life is just smoother; there are no big ups and downs any more.


24. Do you have any advice for someone who is just beginning a Zero Carb diet?

Commit to doing ZC for a couple months before you assess whether to tweak it or discard it. The human mind can rationalize all number of things on a day to day basis. Commit to giving yourself a big enough sample size of data so that you can fairly assess whether or not ZC will work for you.

I’d also recommend going straight to beef and water because you’ll find out what you’re really made of and
you’ll save a bunch of time trying to find out what you are and aren’t sensitive to; instead of juggling cheese and cured meats and chicken and trying to figure which variable is affecting your progress the most. Simplify the equation. Remove as many variables as possible.

25. Are your friends and family supportive of your Zero Carb lifestyle? If not, how do you handle this?

Yes, they are supportive. My fiancée eats ZC most days and she knows it’s the healthiest path. My parents know it is healthy too.

I’ve met a lot of people that question my way of eating, but you can’t be scared to own ZC. I’ve never felt embarrassed or ashamed to eat this way. I know it’s healthy. I know it’s right for me. I think people sense that when they talk to me so I’ve never really gotten any grief about it.

Also, the paradigm has shifted a lot more in our favor. Paleo diets, keto diets, etc. These things are much more widely accepted now and ZC isn’t nearly as fringe as it once was.

26. Is there anything you would like share about this way of eating that I have not already asked you?

Nothing comes to mind. Let me know if you have any further questions in the future!


Please visit my “Interviews” page linked at the top of this website to read the stories of other long time Zero Carb veterans.

If you are interested in meeting others who practice an All-Meat diet, please feel free to join us in the Facebook group “Principia Carnivora” for support.


Zero Carb Interview: Amber O’Hearn


1. How long have you been eating a Zero Carb (No Plant Foods) diet?

I’ve been eating an essentially plant-free diet for almost 7 years, starting in November of 2009.

2. What motivated you to try this way of eating? Weight? Health?

My original reason for trying a meat-only diet was for fat loss. I was at my wit’s end, because my very low carb, but plant heavy diet, even though it had helped me get to into great shape in the past, wasn’t as effective anymore and I was slowly getting fatter and fatter.

3. How long did it take you to adapt to a Zero Carb diet, both physically and psychologically?

It’s funny. It took me way longer to adapt to the diet mentally than physically. I spent three weeks planning and giving myself pep talks, and even then, I only felt able to commit to it with the promise to myself that it was going to be of very limited duration. Once I started, though, I felt comfortable within a mere few days.

4. What books or people were most influential in guiding you to this way of eating?

The only guidance I had toward this diet at that time was the Zero Carb forum run primarily by Charles Washington, and the inspiring stories there. I also had read Owsley Stanley’s (aka The Bear) essays on the subject.


5. Do you eat only meat, or do you include eggs, cheese, and cream in your diet?

I eat mostly just meat, but I will eat occasional eggs and dairy. I find that dairy increases my appetite significantly and I have an addiction-like response to fermented dairy in particular, so I’m wary of that.

6. What percentage of your diet is beef versus other types of meats?

I eat from all the food groups: ruminants (e.g. beef and lamb), poultry, pork, and fish and shellfish, but beef is the base of my food pyramid.

7. When you eat beef, do you cook it rare, medium, or well done?

I prefer my beef steaks rare, but other cuts I treat individually. To my taste, short ribs are divine roasted for several hours, but ground chuck is best raw or lightly seared.



8. Do you add extra fat to your meat? (i.e. butter, lard, tallow)

I often eat butter, lard, or tallow either on or with my meat, depending on how lean it is.

9. Do you limit your meat consumption or do you eat until satisfied?

I have played around with fasting, but my usual mode of operation is to eat once or twice a day when I get hungry, until I feel satiated. Then I stop.

10. Do you eat liver or other organ meats? If so, how often?

Of organ meats, I mostly eat liver, only because that’s what I have easiest access to. I tend to get a craving for it every few weeks. I’ll eat a lot of it for a few days and then I don’t want it again for a while. I’m not very systematic about it.

11. Do you consume bone broth? If so, how often?

I like bone broth. Just like with the organs I tend to drink it in phases; every day for a few days and then not again for a few weeks. I enjoy bone marrow also.


12. How many meals do you eat per day on average?

I mostly eat two meals a day, at lunch time and again at supper. I often feel better if my first meal is a little later than traditional lunch, but lunch is a social activity at my workplace, and it’s a trade-off.

13. How much meat do you eat per day on average?

I eat about 1.5 to 2 pounds of meat a day.

14. Do you eat grass-fed/pasture-raised meat, or regular commercially produced meat?

I want to support sustainable and humane farming, but the health benefits I’ve received don’t depend on it, so I often eat conventional meat for financial reasons.

15. Do you drink any beverages besides water? (i.e. coffee, tea)

I do drink coffee and occasionally herbal tea. It’s my plant vice.


Amber enjoying cold leftovers for lunch.

16. Do you use salt?

I do sometimes use salt, but during my transition to this diet I used none, and so I’m acclimated to the taste of meat without it, and find I often don’t want it.

17. Do you use spices?

When I’m out, or a guest, I will usually not refuse meat that has up to a moderate amount of spice, but I almost never use it in my own cooking.

18. Do you take any supplements?

I have played around with a variety of supplements, but the only ones I take with any consistency are: turmeric and citrus bioflavonoids, to reduce symptoms of endometriosis; and magnesium, just because I think our whole food chain is deficient in it.

19. How much money do you spend on food each month?

This is difficult to estimate, because I have children with me part time. Overall, the cost is certainly higher than if I ate grains, but fruits and vegetables are expensive by calorie. I’m probably spending less than I used to.


Amber’s son enjoying a stick of butter by itself.

20. Do you have any tips for making this diet more affordable?

Buying cheaper cuts and mixing in pork, poultry, and eggs helps keep cost down. Don’t forget that ill health is a major expense. I’ve never missed work due to illness and have seen my doctor only for labs and preventive care.

21. Do you exercise regularly? If so, how often and how vigorously?

I do a slow-burn style weight-lifting once a week, and walk, run or bike now and then if I feel like it.

22. What benefits have you experienced since beginning a Zero Carb diet? (i.e. recovery from illness, overall health, body composition, exercise performance, hormonal, mental or psychological, etc)

I lost over 60 pounds eating this way, but the most important benefit was that my Type II Bipolar Disorder, which mainly manifested as severe suicidal depression, is in complete remission. I’ve been off all psychiatric drugs since I started eating a carnivorous diet, and the only times I’ve had symptoms are when I have done experiments with plant foods, supplements, or had excessive alcohol consumption.

23. Have you conceived, given birth, or breastfed while on a Zero Carb diet? If so, what was your experience?

My third child was conceived when I started this diet the first time, and I didn’t stay Zero Carb during the first two trimesters, due to severe nausea and carb cravings. By the third trimester I ate very low carb with some carnivorous days. I’ve been essentially plant free since the birth, so that included his entire breastfeeding period. I had better milk supply and better mood and stamina than with the previous two children.

24. Have you raised children on a Zero Carb diet? If so, what has been their experience? How difficult is it to keep carbs out of their diet in today’s world?

My youngest child ate almost no plants for the first few years of his life. Now he has just few plants in his diet, mainly carrots and bell peppers. The others have eaten lower carb and even zero carb in the past, but eat high carb out in the world. It is a difficult social navigation for them, even though they understand the benefits.


25. What do you enjoy most about eating a Zero Carb diet?

It’s hard to think of anything better about carnivorous eating than the freedom from living with Type II Bipolar Disorder and suicidal depression. However, one thing I love about my diet is that I trust my appetite completely now. My body stays in a range of about five pounds no matter what I do. That’s freeing. I also love that I’m especially resistant to disease now. I never worry about the latest viruses going around. I feel robust.

26. Do you have any advice for someone who is just beginning a Zero Carb diet?

My advice to a beginner is to commit to going into it as completely as possible for at least three weeks. You want to eliminate as many confounding factors as possible and stay at it long enough to start seeing changes. Please see my and Zooko’s blog post “Eat Meat. Not Too Little. Mostly Fat.” for our full advice on starting.

27. Is there anything you would like share about this way of eating that I have not already asked you?

Not that I can think of.


Please visit my “Interviews” and “Testimonials” pages linked at the top of this website to read the stories of other short and long term Zero Carb veterans.

If you are interested in meeting others who practice an All-Meat diet, please feel free to join us in the Facebook group “Principia Carnivora” for support.

This interview has been translated into Hebrew by Tomer Aviad and may be read here:

ראיון אפס פחמימות עם אמבר הואירן

Why Do You Eat Your Meat Raw?


Why Do You Eat Your Meat Raw?

It seems like almost every week that a new person who has stumbled into our Zero Carb Facebook group Principia Carnivora asks this question. Since it comes up so often, I have decided to take some time to articulate my personal reasons for choosing raw meat over cooked meat.

When I first started a Zero Carb diet 21 months ago on January 1, 2015, I began with a wide variety of animal foods: eggs, cheese, butter, cream, bone broth, chicken, pork, and beef. All of it cooked. I really struggled with Zero Carb in the beginning because I simply did not feel that good no matter what I ate. Removing all plant foods from my diet certainly helped, but I was still experiencing a lot of negative symptoms from the animal foods I was eating. The biggest symptom with the most impact on my quality of life is chronic migraine headaches.

About 6 months into my Zero Carb journey, I finally discovered that I am histamine intolerant. Histamines are in all aged and fermented foods, as well as eggs and any foods that are slow-cooked, and this is why I have continued to struggle with chronic migraine headaches on a Zero Carb diet. One-by-one, I removed everything from my diet except for beef. And even with the beef, I have to make sure that I get it as fresh as possible and use it immediately. The longer beef – or any meat – is aged, the more histamines it will contain. The longer a steak sits on the shelf after being cut off of a main primal piece by the butcher, the more histamines it will contain.

All last winter (2015-2016), I was eating very lightly pan-fried fatty beef chuck roast steaks. And when I say lightly, I mean 30-60 seconds per side, leaving the meat blue-rare inside. This was working to some extent, but I did not feel all that good. In fact, I got a terrible cold virus last winter that came back three separate times! I literally never get viruses, so to have the same one three times in just a few months was both very worrisome and very unpleasant. The last time I had a virus prior to this was in the winter of 1999-2000, when – incidentally – I was also eating a fair amount of cooked meat (one of my earlier attempts to escape veganism, LOL!).

So, I knew I should be eating my meat raw, but the cold, wet winter and the state of my mind at the time, were really making it difficult for me to do this. Once the weather warmed up a bit, however, I decided to give fresh raw ground beef another try. After a few weeks, I got used to it and then the taste of the cooked meat wasn’t all that enticing any more. Nevertheless, I continued to have a cooked meal here and there, very rarely. But each time I did this – I noticed that 1) I did not feel as well after eating the cooked meat as I did after eating the raw meat; 2) I did not digest the cooked meat as well as I digested the raw meat; and 3) I could tolerate much more fat when I ate it raw verses cooked.


LEM Big Bite #12 All Stainless Steel Meat Grinder

One of the things I have personally found very helpful on my Zero Carb Journey is periodic fasts. I have completed three separate 16-day fasts (each were a combination of water and dry) over the past 21 months. Each of these fasts has helped me quite significantly. Histamines build up in the body over time and fasting is the single most effective method I have discovered to allow my body to eliminate them from “storage.” When the meat I can normally eat without issue begins to give me migraine headaches, then I know my histamine “bucket” is full so-to-speak and it is time for another fast.

I just completed my most recent 16-day fast a week ago. It went really well. But coming off the fast has been both challenging and enlightening. First, I decided to experiment with Fiji water and it gave me a migraine headache and caused me to feel generally crappy. This tells me that the company adds minerals to the Fiji water, which is implied but not directly stated on the label. I am 100% certain of this because I felt exactly the same way as I always feel after taking any supplements of any kind. They all make me very very very sick just like the Fiji water did.

After I recovered from the Fiji water debacle, I decided to try cooking my meat one night. I had broken my fast 6 days earlier and – up to that point – I had eaten only raw ground beef according to my usual custom. Although I am kind of unhappy with myself for choosing to cook my meat this night, I gained an enormous amount of clarity about what my body does and does not like due to this unhappy choice. So, ultimately, the experience was an extremely valuable one because of the new knowledge it brought me.

Needless to say, my body had a very negative response to the cooked meat. I started getting a migraine headache within a few hours of eating it and, 3-days later, I am still suffering the consequences. The next morning, lymph nodes throughout my body were incredibly painful. The effects from eating the cooked meat were so bad, that I actually had to go back on a short dry fast to give my body a chance to work through it. I tried eating my normal fresh raw ground beef the next day, but that just made the migraine headache and lymphatic inflammation worse.

This is one of the reasons I am such a huge advocate for both fasting and doing a bare bones version of the Zero Carb diet if you are new to this way of eating. There are so many potential variables when you eat any and all animal foods that there is really no way to tell how you are responding to them if you include them all indiscriminately. If you start with just fatty beef and water, then you have removed all of the most potentially problematic foods in one fell swoop. After you have eaten only beef and water for 30-days, you can then test other Zero Carb foods one at a time to see how you do with them.

Fasting takes this process one step further by eliminating all food for a period of time. This way when you add back a food, whether from a basic beef and water diet or from a fully fasted state, your body can give you a much clearer response to whatever food you are testing. This is what happened to me with this last fast I did. Being away from any cooked meat for a while prior to the fast, and then doing a long fast, made it considerably easier for my body to let me know that it really really really does not like cooked meat.

Prior to this, I was living in a fantasy world that I could sort of go back and forth between raw and occasional cooked – if and when I felt the desire for it – but this experience has shown me just how utterly delusional that idea was! From here on out, I am no longer seeing cooked meat as an option for myself. This was a very powerful transformative “a-ha” moment for me. I will never again choose to eat meat that has been cooked even the tiniest bit. Cooked meat is now in the same category as plant foods: it is no longer a “food” as far as I am concerned.

While some people might find this realization to be even more restrictive than what most would already perceive to be a very restrictive Zero Carb diet, I personally find it quite liberating to have finally reached a very definitive conclusion on this issue. There is no more doubt about it, and it is one less decision I need to make. It is all raw all the way for me!



Defending Beef by Nicolette Hahn Niman


This is book is a must read for anyone who eats an all-meat diet and is concerned about the long term health of the environment. Nicolette Hahn Niman is a long-time vegetarian and environmental lawyer who worked closely with Bobby Kennedy, Jr. on the issue of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). She got to witness first hand just how damaging these types of meat production facilities can be. But she also visited many non-CAFO cattle ranches that raised their animals in environmentally-sustainable ways.

Lots of statistics are being thrown around – most recently in the film Cowspiracy – implicating beef production as a major cause of environmental destruction. Niman does an superb job of sorting through the data and revealing many of the inaccuracies and misconceptions. She explains that cattle production is not only innocent of most of the accusations levied at it, but why – when done properly – it is an essential component of maintaining a balanced ecosystem.

You can order a copy through Amazon by clicking the link below:

Defending Beef by Nicolette Hahn Niman


Book Reviews:

The Case For Sustainable Meat Takes on Many Sacred Cows – L. A. Times

Defending Beef: Nicolette Hahn Niman’s Call for a Third Way – Huffington Post

Defending Beef by Nicolette Hahn Niman – Weston A. Price Foundation



Jimmy Moore did an excellent podcast with her on his Livin’ La Vida Low Carb Show which you can listen to by clicking the link below:

Defending Beef with Nicolette Hahn Niman – Episode #955

The Beef Research and Teaching Center. Five miles south of the MU campus, South Farm Research Center supports the research, outreach and teaching missions of animal science, plant science, veterinary science, biology, botany and other disciplines. The Center is the location of several research facilities including the Swine Research Center, the Beef Research and Teaching Center, the Turfgrass Research Center and the Equine Teaching Facility. The Center also supports research and demonstration projects in entomology, poultry and maize genetics. The Missouri Foundation Seed program uses South Farm to increase the sales of newly developed seed varieties to dealers. Easy access from campus allows South Farm to be used for hands-on teaching to more than 1,500 students annually and is the location for numerous graduate student research projects. The Center hosts a Showcase each fall to share its projects with the general public; it has become a popular family event, with attendance in the thousands. Photo by Kyle Spradley | © 2014 - Curators of the University of Missouri

Articles by Nicolette Hahn Niman:

Actually, Raising Beef is Good For the Planet – Wall Street Journal

The Carnivore’s Dilemma – New York Times

Support Your Local Slaughterhouse – New York Times

Defending Grass-Fed Beef, A Rancher Weighs In – The Atlantic

Eating Animals – The Atlantic

A Way to Save America’s Bees: Buy Free-Range Beef – The Atlantic

Dogs Aren’t Dinner: The Flaws in an Argument for Veganism – The Atlantic

Can Meat Eaters Also Be Environmentalists? – The Atlantic

For Animals, Grass Each Day Keeps Doctors Away – The Atlantic

How Good Meat Makes a Difference – The Atlantic

nicolette hahn niman


Man, The Fat Hunter by Miki Ben-Dor


This is an interesting study which argues that our need for dietary fat is what drove our evolutionary development towards becoming the humans we are today.

From the Introduction:

It is our contention that two distinct elements combined in the Levant to propel the evolutionary process of replacing H. erectus by a new hominin lineage…One was the disappearance of the elephant (Elephas antiquus) – an ideal food-package in terms of fat and protein content throughout the year – which was until then a main calorie contributor to the diet of the H. erectus in the Levant.

The second was the continuous necessity of H. erectus to consume animal fat as part of their diet, especially when taking into account their large brains. The need to consume animal fat is the result of the physiological ceiling on the consumption of protein and plant foods. The obligatory nature of animal fat consumption turned the alleged large prey preference of H. erectus into a large prey dependence.

Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of the hominins would have increased when very large animals such as the elephant had diminished and a larger number of smaller, faster animals had to be captured to provide the same amount of calories and required fat. This fitness pressure would have been considerably more acute during the dry seasons that prevail in the Levant.

Such an eventuality, we suggest, led to the evolution of a better equipped species, in comparison with H. erectus, that also had a lighter body, a greater lower limb to weight ratio, and improved levels of knowledge, skill, and coordination allowing it to better handle the hunting of an increased number of smaller animals and most probably also develop a new supporting social organization.


To read the full 12-page paper, please click the link below:

Man, The Fat Hunter by Miki Ben-Dor


Miki Ben-Dor presenting at the 2012 Ancestral Health Symposium:



Is An All-Meat Diet Really So Extreme?


The Zero Carb interview I did with The Andersen Family was recently shared on the popular Facebook page Authority Nutrition. It generated several hundred comments from readers. Some of the comments were sincere and thoughtful, while others were down right ignorant and unkind.

Even though Charlene – the wife and mother of this lovely family – healed her very ill body from Lyme Disease, and then went on to produce two beautiful and very healthy boys, by adopting this diet 17 years ago, they were none-the-less criticized by many for their dietary choice. Apparently, even the hardest evidence is impossible to accept when one’s beliefs are in the way.

As long term Zero Carb carnivore Michael Frieze said in response to the general tenor of these comments, “People like to say what they think without really thinking.” Unfortunately, this observation is all too true, and I was probably guilty of the same kind of unthinking remarks myself at one time – being the former vegan that I was – before I decided to broaden my horizons and read beyond my comfort zone of beliefs.

One of the most frequent comments I heard from the readers of this post was that they felt an all-meat diet was too “extreme” and “unbalanced” and – by implication – therefore somehow “inappropriate” and “wrong.” There is a strong bias toward the idea of “moderation” in all things in our modern Western culture, and this perspective is often applied to the foods we eat.

But, as low carb doctor and scientist Stephen Phinney – author of The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living – has pointed out, it may be neither wise nor valid for us to apply “moderation” thinking to our diet, especially if we are sensitive or even intolerant to carbohydrates.

For example, when someone has a problem with alcohol, the treatment of choice is the complete elimination of all alcohol from the person’s diet. A moderate intake of alcohol is generally considered to be an incredibly dangerous and unhealthy practice for an alcoholic. Exiling it from one’s life is neither labeled as “extreme” and “unbalanced,” nor seen as an “inappropriate” and “wrong” approach to the problem.

As Dr. Phinney further argues,  “If consuming lots of carbohydrate provided some essential nutrient that would otherwise be lacking, then we might agree that a low carbohydrate diet is unbalanced or even extreme. But that’s clearly not the case. Think of it this way – what if you lived in California and planned a vacation in Hawaii. Would you believe someone who told you going that far was ‘extreme’, and therefore you ought to try flying just half way there instead? In this analogy, practicing this form of moderation would land you in seriously deep water. ‘Moderation’ and ‘balanced’ are meaningless terms when we are talking about ‘islands of safety’. And if your body is carbohydrate intolerant, eating a low carbohydrate diet is your island of dietary safety. Should a person with gluten intolerance consume moderate amounts of gluten so they can have a balanced diet? Of course not. Then why should a person with carbohydrate intolerance consume moderate amounts of carbs to meet some arbitrary criterion of a ‘balanced’ diet?” (p. 43)

So, why is the elimination of all carbohydrate-containing plant foods considered to be “extreme,” “unbalanced,” “inappropriate,” and “wrong” for people who feel less than well after eating them? Especially given the fact that humans evolved on an all-meat diet, as explained by Nora Gedgaudas in her book Primal Body, Primal Mind. (Please see my page on the Original Human Diet for a detailed explanation.)

In fact, examined through this lens, veganism is a lot more “extreme” for humans than an all-meat diet is because no human population in history has ever willingly eschewed all animals foods for any length of time. Many long-term vegans – like myself and Lierre Keith (author of the excellent book The Vegetarian Myth) – are discovering the negative health ramifications that occur as a result of avoiding all animal foods for years.

Another reason I find it odd that an all-meat diet is viewed as “extreme” by so many people is that a significant number of wild animals – that we are all familiar with – rely on a single type of food for their nourishment. For example:

Bison live almost entirely on prairie grasses.



Koala Bears live almost entirely on Eucalyptus leaves.



Panda Bears live almost entirely on Bamboo plants.



Wolves live almost entirely on the flesh of other animals.


And none of these animal’s diets are deemed “extreme” or “unbalanced” or “inappropriate” or “wrong.” Instead, it is widely understood that these animals evolved to eat specific foods and that these specific foods provide all of the nutrition required for optimal health in these animals.

Many a zoo keeper has discovered that if these animals do not -in fact – receive the foods they evolved to eat, they will become ill and unable to reproduce. Once the appropriate food is supplied to their captive animals, the animals in their care recover their health and reproductive capacity.

It is truly astonishing that human doctors seem completely incapable of drawing a connection between their patient’s food intake and their patient’s health or lack there of…but that is a different discussion altogether. Suffice it to say that veterinarians are quite a bit more advanced in this understanding.

Why should it be any different for humans who evolved to become the large-brained creatures that we are today precisely because of the very high fat, predominantly all-meat diet that we ate for Millenia? (For an interesting look at how our biological need for fat likely drove us to become the humans we are today see Man: The Fat Hunter by Miki Ben-Dor.)

We even have the example of several modern remnants of our hunter-herder ancestors such as the Arctic Eskimos studied by Stefansson (see The Fat of the Land) and the African Maasai studied by Weston A. Price (see Nutrition and Physical Degeneration) to show us just how healthy an an all-meat and animal foods diet can be.

From an anthropological, archeological, historical, and ecological perspective, an all-meat diet appears to be the most natural nutritional choice in the world for nourishing the human body and mind. The only thing extreme about an all-meat diet – as far as I can tell – is that is allows us to live extremely well.